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Biography of Sun Yat-sen - Staging and leading the 1911 revolution (November 1894—March 1912)

Last updated :2012-11-10

I. Founded The Hsing Chung Hui (China Renaissance Society) and raised the flag of revolution

1. An exterior view of Li Chang’s residence
Dr. Sun Yat-sen founded the earliest revolutionary society of the Chinese bourgeois—the Hsing Chung Hui—by recruiting young revolutionaries from among overseas Chinese in Honolulu in November, 1894, and declared his democratic revolution program of "Driving away the Manchus, restore the Chinese rule and set up a united government”. The picture shows the site where the first batch of members took their oaths to join the society - Li Chang’ residence.


2. Declaration of the Founding of the Xing Zhong Society in Honolulu
This is the Declaration of the Founding of the Xing Zhong Society in Honolulu drafted by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, in which it is clearly stated that the tenet of the society is “specially for the revival of the Chinese rule and maintaining of the political system.”




3. Original site of Wang’s School
Soon after setting up the Hong Kong Hsing Chung Hui, Dr. Sun Yat-sen founded a branch of the society in Guangzhou together with Lu Haodong, Zheng Shiliang, etc., using Wang’s School as its headquarters. Dr. Sun Yat-sen traveled between Guangzhou and Hong Kong in preparation of the Guangzhou uprising. This is the original site of Wang’s School.



4. Wanted posters and confidential letters by the Qing Government
This is a wanted poster by the Qing government to arrest Dr. Sun Yat-sen after the failure of Guangzhou uprising in 1895 and a “confidential letter” about subornation of Chen Tingwei, a traitor of Hsing Chung Hui, for the capture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen.






5. Cover of Sufferings in London
Sufferings in London, a book written by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in English about his early revolutionary activities, was published in the spring of 1897. This is the cover of the book.






6. Original site of Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s residence in Taibei
In the attempt of supplying money and weapons to the revolutionary army in Huizhou directly from the sea and directing more uprisings from a close place, Dr. Sun Yat-sen rented a house as the commanding headquarters in Taibei in June, 1900. This is a picture of the original house in Taibei.



7. Map of the marching routes of the army in Huizhou Uprising
The Huizhou Uprising broke out in San Zhou Tian on October 8, 1900, and before long the insurgent army took over the towns of Xin Xu, Zhen Long, Yong Hu, Bai Mangmang, Beng Gang and other places. It was defeated soon. This is a map showing the marching routes of the insurgent army.




II. Founding the Tung Meng Hui (Alliance Society)

1. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and French officials
In 1902, Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Vietnam to carry out revolutionary activities. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and French officials taken in Hanoi.






2. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and Sun Chang
Dr. Sun Yat-sen and his nephew Sun Chang in Honolulu, taken in March 1904







3. Oath of Tung Ming Hui
The Tung Ming Hui (Alliance Society), a national revolutionary party, was formally founded in Tokyo, Japan on August 20, 1905. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was elected as Premier. This is the scroll of political programs of Tung Ming Hui, written by Dr. Sun Yat-sen later.






4. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and members of Tung Ming Hui in Singapore
Most overseas branches of Tung Ming Hui were founded under the personal concern of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. This is a photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and members of the Singapore branch of Tung Ming Hui after it was founded there in April 1906.



III. Propagating the democratic revolutionary program vigorously

1. The first issue of Min Pao (People’s Newspaper)
Dr. Sun Yat-sen attached great importance to propagating of public opinions, and Tung Ming Hui founded its own paper Min Pao in November 1905, which published 26 issues in three years and played an important role in propagating the ideas of democratic revolution.


2. Foreword to the first issue of Min Pao
In the foreword to the first issue of Min Pao, Dr. Sun Yat-sen summarized the political program of Tung Ming Hui in three words: nationalism, democracy and people’s livelihood. This is a picture of the foreword.

3. Photo of Huang Xing and some editorial staff of Min Pao
The chief editors and writers of Min Pao were Hu Hanmin, Zhang Ji, Song Jiaoren, Zhu Zhixin, Liao Zhongkai, Wang Jingwei, Tao Chengzhang, Zhang Binling, etc. This is a picture of Huang Xin (the one lying), leader of Tung Ming Hui, and Wang Jingwei, Zhang Binling (second and fifth from left).




IV. Leading armed uprisings against the Manchu

1. Portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen
In the spring of 1907, Dr. Sun Yat-sen set up headquarters in Hanoi, Vietnam, in charge of armed uprisings against the Manchu in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. This portrait was taken in Tokyo in January of that year.





2. The rallying troops of the Huang Gang Uprising
Xu Xueqiu, Chen Yongbo and other members of the Tung Ming Hui staged an armed uprising in Huang Gang, Raoping County on May 22, 1907, which took over Huang Gang and set up a military government, but was later defeated by the Manchu. This is a picture of the rallying troops before the uprising.



3. Dr. Sun Yat-sen in Paris
Dr. Sun Yat-sen went to Europe to collect outlays for the revolution. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen when he arrived at Paris from Singapore.






4. The mausoleum of martyrs of the New Army
This is a picture of the mausoleum of martyrs of the New Army who died in the Guangzhou Uprising in 1910.






5. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and his son, Sun Ke
After the failure of the Guangzhou Uprising by the New Army, Dr. Sun Yat-sen continued his revolutionary activities of recruiting members of the Tung Ming Hui and collecting money in the U.S. This is a photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with his son, Sun Ke (left), and Lu Xin (right), editor-in-chief of New Liberty Paper.



6. Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s residence in Bin Lang Yu
On November 13, 1910, Dr. Sun Yat-sen summoned activists of the Tung Ming Hui from home and abroad to an important meeting in Bin Lang Yu (now belonging to Malaysia), at which they decided to raise money to stage armed uprising in Guangzhou again. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s residence on the Island, which also served as a secret contact location.

7. The Huang Hua Gang Mausoleum of 72 martyrs
In May 1911, Mr. Pan Dawei, a member of the Tung Ming Hui, risked his life to collect the remains of 72 martyrs who died in the March 29 uprising and buried them together in Huang Hua Gang, at the eastern suburbs of Guangzhou. This is a picture of the mausoleum of the 72 martyrs.




8. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and comrades from Chicago
On May 3, 1911, Dr. Sun Yat-sen called a meeting in Chicago to discuss the failure of the Guangzhou Uprising and the future actions. This is a photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the comrades attending the meeting.




9. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and comrades from San Francisco
In July 1911, Dr. Sun Yat-sen proposed to set up the American Hong Men Fund-raising Bureau (or called the Chinese Revolutionary Army Fund-raising Bureau). This is a photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with some comrades from San Francisco at the founding of the Bureau.



V. Founding the Republic and ending the Imperial Rule

1. The Hubei Military Government
On October 11, 1911, the revolutionaries in Hubei founded the Hubei Military Government of the Republic of China in Wuchang, and chose Li Yuanhong, commander of the New Army, as the governor. This picture shows the building of the military government with the 18-star flag used by the revolting army hanging in front of the door.


2. Ordinance of President Sun
The Hubei military government issued a proclamation in the name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen on October 31, 1911. This is a picture of Bulletin of the Republic of China carrying the proclamation.




3. The 18-star flag used in Wuchang Uprising









4. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with saluters in Hong Kong
Dr. Sun Yat-sun left Marseilles, France on November 24, 1911 by ship and arrived at Hong Kong on December 20. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with saluters in Hong Kong. Front row from the left are He Mali, Hu Hanmin, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Chen Shaobai, He Tianjiong; second left on front row is Liao Zhongkai, sixth left on back row is.


5. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with people seeing him off at Shanghai Station
Dr. Sun Yat-sen left Shanghai for Nanjing to take office on January 1, 1912. He was met by over 10 thousand people seeing him off enthusiastically. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with some of those people.



6. The president’s oath
Dr. Sun Yat-sen swore in to take office of the Provisional President of the Republic of China in the original office of governor of Jiang Su and Jiang Xi in Nanjing in the evening of January 1, 1912. This is a picture of the oath.





7. Proclamation of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, President of the Republic of China
This is the proclamation made by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in announcing the founding of the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China and its guiding principles for domestic and foreign affairs.



8. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen as Provisional President
This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen when he was Provisional President of the Nanjing Provisional Government of the Republic of China.




9. Office of the Provisional President of the Nanjing Government
This is the office of the Provisional President of the Nanjing Provisional Government.




10. Senate of the Nanjing Provisional Government
This is the original building of the senate of the Nanjing Provisional Government.





11. Dr. Sun Yat-sen presiding over the first cabinet meeting
On January 21, 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen presided over the first cabinet meeting of the Nanjing Provisional Government. This is a picture of the meeting in session.




12. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and senators of the Provisional Senate
On January 28, 1912, the Provisional Senate of the Republic of China was founded in Nanjing. This is a picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and the senators.




13. Rescript of Abdication of the Qing Emperor
On February 12, 1912, the Court of Qing issued a rescript announcing the abdication of the emperor on accepting the preferential terms, which signifies the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the termination of the feudal imperial system in China. This is a picture of the rescript.


14. Senate of the Nanjing Provisional Government
Dr. Sun Yat-sen submitted his letter of resignation to the Nanjing Provisional Government on February 13, 1912, in which he suggested that the provisional government should still be in Nanjing, that the new president must observe the laws and charters decreed. This is a picture a copy of the letter carried in the Bulletin of the Provisional Government issue No. 17.




15. Photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with officials when he paid tribute to the Mausoleum of the Ming Emperors
On February 15, 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen led the civil and martial officers to offer sacrifices to the Mausoleum of the Ming Emperors. This is a photo of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and the officers after the ceremony.




16. Provisional Laws of the Republic of China
In order to ensure the establishment of the democratic republic system in the form of law and to prevent Yuan Shikai from becoming a dictator, Dr. Sun Yat-sen promulgate the Provisional Laws of the Republic of China on March 11, 1912, in which it was reaffirmed that the national sovereignty belonged to all the citizens. This picture shows some of the articles in the laws.